Howard Gardner is a developmental psychologist. the author of 25 books translated into 28 languages, and several hundred articles, best-known for this theory of multiple intelligences. He believed that the conventional concept of intelligence was too narrow and restrictive and that measures of IQ often miss out on other "intelligences" that an individual may possess.

His 1983 book Frames of Mind outlined his theory and his eight major types of intelligence. Gardner’s theory had a particular impact in the field of education where it inspired teachers and educators to explore new ways of teaching aimed at these different intelligences.

Gardner's Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

The Notion Of Intelligence:
• All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts.
• Each person has a different intellectual composition.
• We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students.
• These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together.
• These intelligences may define the human species.
intelligence is the capacity to do something useful in the society in which we live. Intelligence is the ability to respond successfully to new situations and the capacity to learn from one's past experiences.

Reasoning behind Gardner’s Theory:
• Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning.
• Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence.
• Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.

Impact of Multiple Intelligence Theory:

Gardner's theory has perhaps had the greatest impact within the field of education, where it has received considerable attention and use. His conceptualization of intelligence as more than a single, solitary quality has opened the doors for further research and different ways of thinking about human intelligence.

This theory aroused and attracted the warm response from the whole world, especially in the Education and Psychology arena. Actually, no one uses just one type of intelligence, we all use several in our daily lives. Some are stronger than others for each person.

The Transformation:
The good news is that the theory of multiple intelligence has grabbed the attention of many educators around the world, and hundreds of schools are currently using its philosophy to redesign the way it educates children.

Multiple Intelligences versus Learning Styles

In his 2013 book The App Generation, Gardner and co-author Katie Davis suggest that the theory of multiple intelligences has too often been conflated with the idea of learning styles. The two are not the same, Gardner explains and uses a computer analogy to demonstrate the differences between the ideas.

Traditional conceptions of a single intelligence suggest that the mind possesses a single- central and all-purpose “computer” suggests Gardner in his book. This computer then determines how people perform in every aspect of their lives. Gardner's conception of multiple intelligences, on the other hand, proposes that the mind possess a number of “computers" that act mostly independently of one another and contribute to different mental abilities. Gardner believes that people may have somewhere between seven and 10 distinctly different intelligences.

Learning styles, on the other hand, relate to an individuals personality and learning preferences. The problem with the concept of learning styles. Gardner explains, is that not only are they only vaguely defined, research has found little evidence that teaching to a student’s preferred style has an effect on learning outcomes.

Gardner distinguishes between his multiple intelligences and the idea of learning styles by defining intelligences as a mental computational power in a certain area such as verbal ability or spatial intelligence. He defines learning styles as how an individual learner approaches different educational materials.

Intra-Personal Intelligence (Self Smart)

Possible Characteristics :
• Has the ability to do self-reflection, takes the initiative to ponder on life's major questions and problems
• Understands oneself, has strong self-awareness, particular about the important values in life that one believes in
• Able to self-regulate and plan one's life effectively
• Understand one's own strengths and weaknesses
• Prefers to be alone than to be in a group
• Strong will-power, has individualistic character
• Has high self-esteem
• Able to learn and get inspired from experiences of success & failure

Possible Career Interest:
Psychologists, Pastor, Professor, Novelist, Therapist, Counselor, Entrepreneur

Note:
The Intra-personal Intelligence is less liable to define or suggest a certain career than any of the other intelligence since the ability of self-awareness. self discipline and self improvement is applicable to any other careers as well.

Inter-Personal Intelligence (People Smart)

Possible characteristics :
• Able to understand other’s intentions and motives.
• Good at telling other people emotions and thoughts simply from observing their facial expressions.
and physical movements (Body language).
• Has the ability to work with others, likes to solve problems through teamwork.
• Able to listen well to others and put oneself in the other person's shoes to care the other person.
• Natural leader. good social skills. has good relationship with others.
• Like team activities, does not like individual activities or being alone.
• When faced with problems, tends to turn to others for help instead of solving it on one's own.
• Feels comfortable in crowd.

Possible Career Interest :
Educator, Coach, Mentor, Principal, Manager, Nurse, Social Workers, Politician, Counselor, PR Executive, HR Professionals, Sales People, Event Organizer, Customer Service Manager

Logical Intelligence (Number Smart)

Possible characteristics :
• Has a good concept of cause and effect about things.
• Likes to find logical sequence. form and discipline in things.
• Likes to play strategy games.
• Likes to use mathematical and reasoning abilities.
• Likes to quantify and manage information that has been collected or tends to express through numbers.
• Able to remember what one has learned through effective comprehension. analysis and summary.
• Likes mathematics science, and computer course’s more than language and history courses programs.

Possible Career Interest:
Scientist, Mathematician, Tax officer, Accountant, Statistician, Scientist, Judge, Actuary, Software Engineer, Engineer, Doctor, Economist

Linguistic Intelligence (Word Smart)

Possible characteristics :
• Sensitive to words.
• Good in listening, speaking, reading and writing.
• Likes to use language to think, express and communicate.
• Likes to read and write. Regards books as very important.
• Good at remembering People names, places. dates and trivial matters.

Possible Career Interest:
Writers, Lawyers, Journalists, Speakers, Trainers, Copy-writers,Teachers, Poets, Editors, Linguistics, Translators, PR Consultant, Media Consultants, TV & Radio Presenters, Voice - over Artists, Novelist

Visual-Spatial Intelligence (Space Smart)

Possible characteristics :
• Good in drawing tip plans, re-arranging objects, change of space, finding the right space and direction amidst a confusing space For eg: finding the way out at cross road junctions.
• Able to feel visual space accurately. Has a good grasp of direction& often able to find the way (roads) in foreign strange places.
• Likes artistic activities, has more imagination.
• Likes to look at art and paintings, origami, building blocks, puzzles, maze games.
• When reading absorbs more information from pictures than words Reading maps and diagrams are easier than reading words.
• Likes to watch movies, slides, 3D animation.
• Able to handle accurately and clearly when expressing visual space.
• Understands interior design technical drawings.

Possible Career Interest:
Tour guide, Interior Designer Urban Planning, Pilot, Captain, Architect, Photographer, Painter, Animator, Homepage Designer, Cartoonist, Illustrator.

Kinesthetic Intelligence (Body Smart)

Possible characteristics :
• Good at using hands, feet movements and body language to express own thoughts and feelings.
• Likes running. jumping. going up and down, climbing and other physical activities.
• Good ideas and inspirations often pop up when walking, running or doing some physical activities.
• Good at imitating other People’s behaviors and the way they talk.
• Gets impatient and start wiggling or tapping / knocking on things if one stays or sits for a long time at one place.
• Accustomed to do hands on work to learn new things instead of just seeing or listening.
• Has good motor co-ordination and able to manipulate and control the body well.
• Fond of physical contact.

Possible Career Interest:
Actors, Marital arts, Performer, Yoga Instructor, Dancer, Athlete, Sculptor, Nursing Staff, Chefs, Chiropractor, Mechanic Technician, Demonstrators, Drivers, Sports-People, Soldiers, Fire-Fighters, Performance Artists, Ergonomics,Osteopaths, Crafts-people, Acupuncturists, Adventurer.

Musical Intelligence (Rhythm Smart)

Possible characteristics :
• Sensitive to pitch, tone and rhythm.
• Remembers the melody of songs and likes all kinds of musical instruments.
• Likes to listen to music and Possesses a good sense of rhythm.
• Usually caps to the beat of music sub-consciously.
• Has the ability to appreciate creation& especially music creations.
• Good at identifying a variety of music styles and types.
• Able to accurately sing out tile whole song after listening to the song just once or twice.
• Likes to listen to music or hum a song while working or studying.

Possible Career Interest:
Symphony Orchestra conductor, Musicians, Singers, composers, DJ’s, Music, Planners, Environment and Musical Instrument, Dealer HI-Fl Dealer

Naturalistic Intelligence (Nature Smart)

Possible characteristics :
• Likes zoos, aquariums, farms, forests and other natural places.
• Often notices the differences in the surrounding.
• Good at distinguishing different things.
• Likes to explore knowledge about Astronomy, the Universe and Biology.
• Has a keen and sharp observation of natural phenomena and scenes.
• Can easily identify and classify animals and plants.
• Can easily observe and detect changes in weather.
• Likes to read books about animals and plants.

Possible Career Interest:
Veterinary, Animal Scholar, Archaeologist. Plants Scholar, Chef, Courtyard Designer, Weather Researcher, Documentary, Producer, Environment Researcher, Animal Protection Activist.

Visual Learners

Possible characteristics:
• Visual Learners uses strong visual associations. They often use lists to organize their life and their thoughts.
• When spelling they recognize words by how they look.
• They may remember faces but forget names.
• They benefit when visual are used as a part of lecture (white board, transparencies, power- point, films, videos, maps, charts, posters. graphs etc.
• Demonstrations by the professors are helpful. as are textbooks with pictures and diagrams.
• Strong will-power, has individualistic character.
• They often have a well-developed imagination and are easily distracted by movement or action in classroom.
However. noise will probably not distract them.
• They may not prefer to learn in study groups. Rather when studying, they tend to like to work alone in quiet room.

Exam & Practice learning:
Practice your visuals back into words or write out sample exam answers. redraw your notes or study pages from memory draw things: use diagrams: place them in highly visible places for easy reviewing.

Best Test Type:
Diagramming, Reading Maps, essay (if you have studied usm an outline), showing a process note.

Worst Test Type:
Oral test, listen and respond test etc.

Auditory Learners

Possible Characteristics:
• Learn by listening to verbal instructions; remember by forming the sounds of words.
• They find it easy to remember names but forget faces.
• They often do well working out solutions or problems by taking them out.
• In most circumstances They need to hear yourself say it in order to effectively commit to memory.
• They may find themselves reading aloud instead of reading silently, talking to themselves or repeating instructions to make sure you understand them.
• The discussions cements the information for them.
• They are distracted by noise and often need to work where it is relatively quiet.
• However, they benefit from listening to lectures, dialogues and plays; using audio recording and videos etc., participating in group discussions.

Exam & Learning Tips:
• Imagine talking with examiner, listen to 'your voices and write down the answers: • Spend time in quiet places recalling the ideas • Listen to audio CDs while exercising • Speak your answers aloud inside your head

Best Test Type:
Writing responses to lectures & oral exams.

Worst Test Type:
Reading passages and writing answer in a timed test.

Kinesthetic Learners

Possible Characteristics:
• Learn by becoming physically involved and actually doing something with what’s being learned.
• "Hands-on” activity is needed to grasp the learning. “Being on the move” helps your memory to work.
• In the classroom, they benefit from physical activity and real-life examples.
• Using large diagrams, floor wall puzzles and large maps on the wall or floor are helpful.
• Charades, acting. interviewing. Pantomiming. skits and role playing enhance learning.
• Laboratories, fields trips, triall-error assignments and fieldwork done outside the classroom promote more interest.

Exam & Learning Tips:
• When reviewing new information, copy key points onto a chalkboard or other large writing surface.
• Use the computer to organize the info into graphs. tables, spreadsheets etc.
• Practice writing answers to old exam papers, record your own CD and use them for review.

Best Test Type:
Short definitions, fill-ins, multiple choices.

Worst Test Type:
Lone test and essays.

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